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Thread: Impossible cosmic rays are shooting out of Antarctica

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    Impossible cosmic rays are shooting out of Antarctica

    From 2018

    Cosmic rays have been discovered coming out of Antarctica.

    No high-speed particle we know of could possibly go in one side of the earth and come out the other.All of the proposed explanations are exciting, especially the most likely one.Meet ANITA. ANITA stands for "Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna." It seeks out cosmic rays from space as while hanging from a balloon suspended over Antarctica. In the last two years, though, it has twice detected cosmic rays coming from a direction no one expected: inside the earth. According to the Standard Model (SM) of physics, this shouldn't be possible.


    ANITA, foreground, and its balloon, background

    And guess what? ANITA’s not alone

    In September, a paper was submitted for peer review by astrophysicists at Penn State led by Derek Fox. "I was like, 'Well this model doesn't make much sense,'" Fox tells Live Science, "but the [ANITA] result is very intriguing, so I started checking up on it. I started talking to my office neighbor [and paper co-author] Steinn Sigurdsson about whether maybe we could gin up some more plausible explanations than the papers that have been published to date." Lacking any, they looked for other similar events and found three. They'd been detected by a surface-based Antarctic neutrino detector called, sensibly enough, IceCube. And when the data from ANITA and IceCube when combined, the Penn State scientists started getting excited. They calculate that whatever kind of particle is flying up and away from Earth has a less than 1-in-3.5 million chance of being any of the particles predicted by the Standard Model. Obviously, this has physicists scratching their heads trying to figure out what on earth is going on.


    IceCube

    How cosmic rays are supposed to behave

    First of all, of course, cosmic rays are supposed to come from out there somewhere, not here. The earth is bombarded with them all the time. The suspicion is that the newly detected particles are cosmic rays slamming into the earth on one side and somehow making it out the other.

    Cosmic rays, though, are high-energy particles with relatively wide cross-sections that lead to their demise by causing them to crash into matter inside the Earth. They're "mainly (89%) protons — nuclei of hydrogen, the lightest and most common element in the universe — but they also include nuclei of helium (10%) and heavier nuclei (1%), all the way up to uranium particles," according to CERN. Low-energy neutrinos, on the other hand, can pass through the earth's rocky mass, but they're not involved with cosmic rays.

    Both ANITA and IceCube track neutrinos indirectly by detecting their remains, if you will. They detect the particles neutrinos produce when they decay post-collision. Since neutrinos can't get through the earth, though, something else is producing these particles. But what?


    Artist rendition of cosmic rays

    They could be a new kind of particle…

    One candidate put forward as responsible for the event is the elusive "sterile neutrino," first hinted at by evidence captured in the mid 1990s at the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) at Los Alamos. The data was interpreted as suggesting a weird kind of high-speed neutrino that simply passes through matter without any interaction. No one else was able to reproduce the result, and the idea fell out of favor. Until this last spring, that is, when MiniBooNE at Chicago's FermiLab captured new signs that it might exist. The sterile neutrino would break the Standard Model if confirmed, which is one of the things that make MiniBoonE's data exciting. "That would be huge," says Duke physicist Kate Scholberg, who wasn't involved with the research, "…that would require new particles ... and an all-new analytical framework."

    Others have suggested that it could be a product of dark matter. Cool as either of these ideas would be, perhaps the strongest reason for the detected upward cosmic rays is even more thrilling.

    …or they could be long-sought supersymetrical particles

    According to the Standard Model, every particle has a symmetrical partner, but the particles we know about don't match up. To resolve this apparent imbalance, a class of thus-far-hidden "supersymmetrical" particles has been proposed. It was hoped that the Large Hadron Collider could detect these mysterious — and so far just theoretical — particles, but no. Since 2012, when the last known particle predicted the Standard Model, the Higgs-Boson, was detected, nothing new's been found.

    Until, maybe, now.

    What the Penn paper proposes

    The Penn State paper suggests these South Pole upward cosmic rays could be our first sign of supersymmetricals, specifically the partner of the Standard Model's tau leptons. With a a couple of "S"es added to signify supersymmetry, they'd be stau sleptons.

    Others agree that they could be the first actual evidence of supersymmetry. Los Alamos physicist Bill Louis tells LiveScience, "I think it's very compelling," though he adds that the pinpointing of a stau slepton is "a bit of a stretch."

    Fox admits he certainly can't be sure, but that, "From my perspective, I go trawling around trying to discover new things about the universe, I come upon some really bizarre phenomenon, and then with my colleagues, we do a little literature search to see if anybody has ever thought that this might happen. And then if we find papers in the literature, including one from 14 years ago that predict something just like this phenomenon, then that gets really high weight from me." And, guess what, he did find a prediction from 2003 of stau sleptons showing up just like this.


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    Administrator Aragorn's Avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by The One View Post
    [...] …or they could be long-sought supersymetrical particles
    Evidence of Supersymmetry would actually be my own train of thought as well.

    Quote Originally posted by The One View Post
    According to the Standard Model, every particle has a symmetrical partner, but the particles we know about don't match up. To resolve this apparent imbalance, a class of thus-far-hidden "supersymmetrical" particles has been proposed. It was hoped that the Large Hadron Collider could detect these mysterious — and so far just theoretical — particles, but no. Since 2012, when the last known particle predicted the Standard Model, the Higgs-Boson, was detected, nothing new's been found.
    To be fair, the main reason why there has so far not been any detection of supersymmetrical particles at the LHC is that the LHC simply isn't powerful enough to produce them. This is why a proposal for a new, much larger and much more powerful hadron collider has been put forth, but so far the proposal has not been met with approval yet. Everything in this world comes with a price tag attached to it, and the amount of money required for building a new, bigger and more powerful hadron collider is ─ pardon the pun ─ astronomical.

    And then I'm not even talking of the paranoia and gullibility among the Woke™ crowd. We've already seen them reject just about anything to do with science, from vaccines ─ and still very acutely, the coronavirus pandemic ─ over artificial intelligence, all the way up to the LHC and HAARP.
    = DEATH BEFORE DISHONOR =

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    Senior Member Aianawa's Avatar
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    Funny how woke = awake for many lol inversion Inversion yourversion.

    These cosmic rays i have read on a few times over say the last five years at least, especialllly 2019.

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    Super Moderator United States Dreamtimer's Avatar
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    People 'on both sides' (lol) have been calling themselves woke for years now. So what is woke?

    What is enlightened?

    What is ignorant?

    There are people from all over the spectrum calling themselves woke.

    And woke is a compliment as well as an insult.

    I don't really bother with 'woke' anymore. If someone calls someone woke, I most likely just roll my inner eyes.


    What's the practical outcome of building a larger collider? What's the use of this knowledge? I'm a fan of knowledge and understanding for it's own sake. But to invest in building enormous colliders, it seems there has to be more of a motive than knowledge and understanding.

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    Senior Member BeastOfBologna's Avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Dreamtimer View Post
    People 'on both sides' (lol) have been calling themselves woke for years now. So what is woke?

    What is enlightened?

    What is ignorant?

    There are people from all over the spectrum calling themselves woke.

    And woke is a compliment as well as an insult.

    I don't really bother with 'woke' anymore. If someone calls someone woke, I most likely just roll my inner eyes.


    What's the practical outcome of building a larger collider? What's the use of this knowledge? I'm a fan of knowledge and understanding for it's own sake. But to invest in building enormous colliders, it seems there has to be more of a motive than knowledge and understanding.
    For sure DT, the motive is always technology for power and gain. It reminds me of the Jewish scientist that prior to WWII invented killer gas weapons. And we know how that ended up.
    “But those who have been under the shadow, who have gone down at last to elemental things, will have a wider charity” - Herbert George Wells -

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    Administrator Aragorn's Avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Dreamtimer View Post
    What's the practical outcome of building a larger collider? What's the use of this knowledge? I'm a fan of knowledge and understanding for it's own sake. But to invest in building enormous colliders, it seems there has to be more of a motive than knowledge and understanding.
    There will come a time that mankind will have to leave the confines of Earth ─ it's inevitable. Depending on how we treat the Earth, this time may come a lot sooner than humanity expects. A proper understanding of the laws of physics is tantamount to mankind's ability to foray onto other worlds, and especially if these other worlds are located outside of our own solar system.

    In addition to that, better science leads to better technology ─ technology that can help all of us today, not just the elite. As someone noted only a few days ago, it's pathetic how the two wealthiest men in the world ─ in case you hadn't heard, that's Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk ─ are fighting over who gets a contract with NASA to put the next man on the moon.





    Quote Originally posted by BeastOfBologna View Post
    For sure DT, the motive is always technology for power and gain.
    Not among real scientists.
    = DEATH BEFORE DISHONOR =

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    Super Moderator United States Dreamtimer's Avatar
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    Thank you, Aragorn. And I agree, real science isn't, and shouldn't, be about just power and profit. The number one reason would be that we'd end up with bad science.

    I think humanity will face it's own mortality sooner rather than later.

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