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Thread: Expert Facts CV19 Is Hoax ?

  1. #16
    Administrator Aragorn's Avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Aianawa View Post
    Produce a sample then Aragorn, c'mon man, do it.

    Spose your not seeing let alone feeling the narrative change atm, or are you ?, i have to be myself best able, lately i have had to be who i am not, to be able to continue sharing and socialising and connecting with-in forum and being who i am, Malc is being who he is, bless his journey, Malc find a sample, real sample evidence, not cooked up by the usual suspects n nefarious charactors knowingly and unknowingly.

    There is one truth on this matter, hoax away.
    I don't give a flying fuck about whatever the narrative of the day is, Vern, and especially not about the variant of the narrative going round within the knee-jerking alt-right circles whence you exclusively get your information. I understand the science behind what's going on.

    Besides, I am absolutely certain that I have explicitly mentioned here at the forum that I myself have had Covid-19, and not once but twice. One of my friends ─ she has been a member here ─ has also had it twice, and her father died of it. My brother's youngest son and his girlfriend have both been tested positive but were asymptomatic, but given that they are both teachers, this automatically meant that they had to immediately isolate themselves. And here at the forum, Malc has posted about his son Nathan almost dying of Covid-19, and Chris was posting about his own experiences while he himself was still in hospital with Covid-19.

    The denial that Covid-19 is real and deadly because you've never caught it, and your neighbor hasn't caught it, and the rabbits in your backyard didn't catch it either is just as in(s)ane as that I would be claiming that New Zealand doesn't exist because I've never been to New Zealand, my neighbor hasn't been to New Zealand either and the rabbits in the town park ─ I don't have a backyard because I live in an apartment ─ also have never been to New Zealand.

    Is the above enough of a sample for you, Vern?
    = DEATH BEFORE DISHONOR =

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    Super Moderator Wind's Avatar
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    Aianawa wants them special eggysamples. I probably had Covid-19 once or twice last year too, I was sick for quite a while.

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    Senior Member Aianawa's Avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Chris View Post
    It was incredibly annoying when I was lying in hospital seriously ill, hooked up to oxygen, with double pneumonia and my girlfriend at the time still insisted I never had covid and it was all just a giant hoax. It later turned out, she also had covid, never told anyone, including her flatmates or workmates, where she shared the same breathing space with hundreds of people. She continued working as normal, as her symptoms were mild and probably infected a bunch of people.

    This sort of wilful ignorance, because it isn't due to lack of information, but a denial of reality and a particular kind of arrogance in which one's judgement is seen as superior to that of actual experts, really costs lives and is highly dangerous.

    BTW, I kicked my ex-GF to the kerb and never looked back, I can't have that level of powerful stupid in my life, I have plenty of problems in my life, even without having to educate an adult on the basics of biology and world events. At least if she'd listened to me or anyone else in her life, but of course she was too stubborn...

    Well, rant over, this wasn't directed at Vern, but I had to get it off my chest... Sorry if it was oversharing.
    Glad your rid of her Chris, plenty of education to come imo let alone the vac responses still not being reported truely ( due to fear people will stop taking, duh )

    Quote Originally posted by Aragorn View Post
    I don't give a flying fuck about whatever the narrative of the day is, Vern, and especially not about the variant of the narrative going round within the knee-jerking alt-right circles whence you exclusively get your information. I understand the science behind what's going on.

    Besides, I am absolutely certain that I have explicitly mentioned here at the forum that I myself have had Covid-19, and not once but twice. One of my friends ─ she has been a member here ─ has also had it twice, and her father died of it. My brother's youngest son and his girlfriend have both been tested positive but were asymptomatic, but given that they are both teachers, this automatically meant that they had to immediately isolate themselves. And here at the forum, Malc has posted about his son Nathan almost dying of Covid-19, and Chris was posting about his own experiences while he himself was still in hospital with Covid-19.

    The denial that Covid-19 is real and deadly because you've never caught it, and your neighbor hasn't caught it, and the rabbits in your backyard didn't catch it either is just as in(s)ane as that I would be claiming that New Zealand doesn't exist because I've never been to New Zealand, my neighbor hasn't been to New Zealand either and the rabbits in the town park ─ I don't have a backyard because I live in an apartment ─ also have never been to New Zealand.

    Is the above enough of a sample for you, Vern?
    Yip future generations will look back incrediousely saying wow did they trust science or what. SHOW me the scientific sample or move along, will not reply to your outward child n send loving energy to your inner child.

  6. #19
    Senior Member Aianawa's Avatar
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    Okay i will reply a wee bit, flu 1 n two n cv 19 can and do kill, you have no idea what in the world what is really going on in the world, above n behind the scenes because you wish only your own narrative and the one supplied by people you trust, why is beyond me when you look at all the abuse and misery caused by same ones time and time again, enjoy your side salad of fear alongside whatever else the putrids choose to feed you.

    Being blind to generational abuses does not excuse what you allow for future generations, true for you unknowingly, get proof of a sample from anywhere in the world, ffs that is simple, cmon, or bugger off, please prove me incorrect and please do not overpower me with a ban, get a bloody scientific sample or piss off to a cv19 echo chamber thread Aragorn.

    Quote Originally posted by Wind View Post
    Aianawa wants them special eggysamples. I probably had Covid-19 once or twice last year too, I was sick for quite a while.
    Use your brain and get a scientific sample, no one else can, cmon Wise Wind, please.

    Also why your digging and researching, look into how they scientically get these new variants.
    Last edited by Aianawa, 22nd February 2021 at 09:27.

  7. #20
    Senior Member Aianawa's Avatar
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    The imo fear and narrative CONtrolled = war on the notus's, old stuff really and here is a recent adage >

    reads from Goldstein's book] "In accordance to the principles of doublethink, it does not matter if the war is not real, or when it is, that victory is not possible. The war is not meant to be won. It is meant to be continuous. The essential act of modern warfare is the destruction of the produce of human labour. A hierarchical society is only possible on the basis of poverty and ignorance. In principle, the war effort is always planned to keep society on the brink of starvation. The war is waged by the ruling group against its own subjects, and its object is not victory over Eurasia or Eastasia, but to keep the very structure of society intact." [notices Julia is asleep] Julia? Are you awake? There is truth, and there is untruth. To be in a minority of one doesn't make you mad. Julia, my love, I understand how, but I don't understand why.


    Chapter III, War is Peace, "The Book" is referencing "THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF OLIGARCHICAL COLLECTIVISM" by Emmanuel Goldstein, which happens in Chapter 9 of "1984."


    Okay, off to Tartar land with Jon now, looks a good watch.

    Pity Amanda was pushed off, as she was, is very good with the science side. Mind you any differing narrative, even science wise as i have given also, is atm not the desired one.

  8. #21
    Senior Member Aianawa's Avatar
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    Narrative is getting desperate atm because they fear mongering 500.000 dead of cv19 in USA when they not there yet >

    The CDC website shows only 460,000 deaths, with only 6% of those being stand-alone Covid-19 deaths. 94% of the 460,000 deaths involved 2 or more medical conditions, in addition to the (suspected) presence of Covid-19.

    Feel and seeing more people going wtf, intelligence and wisdom coming through finally, we indeed will save ourselves and the mind is first save by starting with yourself.
    If narrative is losing energy, another fear narrative will be very quickly created.

  9. #22
    Super Moderator United States Dreamtimer's Avatar
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    There has been more than enough scientific evidence out already to disprove the idea that Covid-19 is a hoax. If what has already been presented here and all over the globe isn't enough, then nothing will be.

    You can't prove to a Fundamentalist that the world is as old as it is no matter the quality or quantity of scientific information provided.

    Your 'scientific' challenge, Aianawa, is an empty one at this point.

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    Administrator Aragorn's Avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Aianawa View Post
    Quote Originally posted by Aragorn View Post
    Quote Originally posted by Aianawa View Post
    Produce a sample then Aragorn, c'mon man, do it.

    Spose your not seeing let alone feeling the narrative change atm, or are you ?, i have to be myself best able, lately i have had to be who i am not, to be able to continue sharing and socialising and connecting with-in forum and being who i am, Malc is being who he is, bless his journey, Malc find a sample, real sample evidence, not cooked up by the usual suspects n nefarious charactors knowingly and unknowingly.

    There is one truth on this matter, hoax away.
    I don't give a flying fuck about whatever the narrative of the day is, Vern, and especially not about the variant of the narrative going round within the knee-jerking alt-right circles whence you exclusively get your information. I understand the science behind what's going on.

    Besides, I am absolutely certain that I have explicitly mentioned here at the forum that I myself have had Covid-19, and not once but twice. One of my friends ─ she has been a member here ─ has also had it twice, and her father died of it. My brother's youngest son and his girlfriend have both been tested positive but were asymptomatic, but given that they are both teachers, this automatically meant that they had to immediately isolate themselves. And here at the forum, Malc has posted about his son Nathan almost dying of Covid-19, and Chris was posting about his own experiences while he himself was still in hospital with Covid-19.

    The denial that Covid-19 is real and deadly because you've never caught it, and your neighbor hasn't caught it, and the rabbits in your backyard didn't catch it either is just as in(s)ane as that I would be claiming that New Zealand doesn't exist because I've never been to New Zealand, my neighbor hasn't been to New Zealand either and the rabbits in the town park ─ I don't have a backyard because I live in an apartment ─ also have never been to New Zealand.

    Is the above enough of a sample for you, Vern?
    Yip future generations will look back incrediousely saying wow did they trust science or what. SHOW me the scientific sample or move along, will not reply to your outward child n send loving energy to your inner child.
    Had you been paying attention these last couple of months instead of burying whatever little sense of discernment you have into alt-right news sources and ditto videos from YouTube talking heads, then you would have seen the following articles I've posted here...





    Date: 03.09.2020
    Thread: A Supercomputer Analyzed Covid-19, and an Interesting New Theory Has Emerged


    Source: Elemental


    A closer look at the Bradykinin hypothesis





    Earlier this summer, the Summit supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Lab in Tennessee set about crunching data on more than 40,000 genes from 17,000 genetic samples in an effort to better understand Covid-19. Summit is the second-fastest computer in the world, but the process — which involved analyzing 2.5 billion genetic combinations — still took more than a week.

    When Summit was done, researchers analyzed the results. It was, in the words of Dr. Daniel Jacobson, lead researcher and chief scientist for computational systems biology at Oak Ridge, a “eureka moment.” The computer had revealed a new theory about how Covid-19 impacts the body: the bradykinin hypothesis. The hypothesis provides a model that explains many aspects of Covid-19, including some of its most bizarre symptoms. It also suggests 10-plus potential treatments, many of which are already FDA approved. Jacobson’s group published their results in a paper in the journal eLife in early July.

    According to the team’s findings, a Covid-19 infection generally begins when the virus enters the body through ACE2 receptors in the nose, (The receptors, which the virus is known to target, are abundant there.) The virus then proceeds through the body, entering cells in other places where ACE2 is also present: the intestines, kidneys, and heart. This likely accounts for at least some of the disease’s cardiac and GI symptoms.

    But once Covid-19 has established itself in the body, things start to get really interesting. According to Jacobson’s group, the data Summit analyzed shows that Covid-19 isn’t content to simply infect cells that already express lots of ACE2 receptors. Instead, it actively hijacks the body’s own systems, tricking it into upregulating ACE2 receptors in places where they’re usually expressed at low or medium levels, including the lungs.

    In this sense, Covid-19 is like a burglar who slips in your unlocked second-floor window and starts to ransack your house. Once inside, though, they don’t just take your stuff — they also throw open all your doors and windows so their accomplices can rush in and help pillage more efficiently.

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) controls many aspects of the circulatory system, including the body’s levels of a chemical called bradykinin, which normally helps to regulate blood pressure. According to the team’s analysis, when the virus tweaks the RAS, it causes the body’s mechanisms for regulating bradykinin to go haywire. Bradykinin receptors are resensitized, and the body also stops effectively breaking down bradykinin. (ACE normally degrades bradykinin, but when the virus downregulates it, it can’t do this as effectively.)

    The end result, the researchers say, is to release a bradykinin storm — a massive, runaway buildup of bradykinin in the body. According to the bradykinin hypothesis, it’s this storm that is ultimately responsible for many of Covid-19’s deadly effects. Jacobson’s team says in their paper that “the pathology of Covid-19 is likely the result of Bradykinin Storms rather than cytokine storms,” which had been previously identified in Covid-19 patients, but that “the two may be intricately linked.” Other papers had previously identified bradykinin storms as a possible cause of Covid-19’s pathologies.

    As bradykinin builds up in the body, it dramatically increases vascular permeability. In short, it makes your blood vessels leaky. This aligns with recent clinical data, which increasingly views Covid-19 primarily as a vascular disease, rather than a respiratory one. But Covid-19 still has a massive effect on the lungs. As blood vessels start to leak due to a bradykinin storm, the researchers say, the lungs can fill with fluid. Immune cells also leak out into the lungs, Jacobson’s team found, causing inflammation.

    And Covid-19 has another especially insidious trick. Through another pathway, the team’s data shows, it increases production of hyaluronic acid (HLA) in the lungs. HLA is often used in soaps and lotions for its ability to absorb more than 1,000 times its weight in fluid. When it combines with fluid leaking into the lungs, the results are disastrous: It forms a hydrogel, which can fill the lungs in some patients. According to Jacobson, once this happens, “it’s like trying to breathe through Jell-O.”

    This may explain why ventilators have proven less effective in treating advanced Covid-19 than doctors originally expected, based on experiences with other viruses. “It reaches a point where regardless of how much oxygen you pump in, it doesn’t matter, because the alveoli in the lungs are filled with this hydrogel,” Jacobson says. “The lungs become like a water balloon.” Patients can suffocate even while receiving full breathing support.

    The bradykinin hypothesis also extends to many of Covid-19’s effects on the heart. About one in five hospitalized Covid-19 patients have damage to their hearts, even if they never had cardiac issues before. Some of this is likely due to the virus infecting the heart directly through its ACE2 receptors. But the RAS also controls aspects of cardiac contractions and blood pressure. According to the researchers, bradykinin storms could create arrhythmias and low blood pressure, which are often seen in Covid-19 patients.

    The bradykinin hypothesis also accounts for Covid-19’s neurological effects, which are some of the most surprising and concerning elements of the disease. These symptoms (which include dizziness, seizures, delirium, and stroke) are present in as many as half of hospitalized Covid-19 patients. According to Jacobson and his team, MRI studies in France revealed that many Covid-19 patients have evidence of leaky blood vessels in their brains.

    Bradykinin — especially at high doses — can also lead to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Under normal circumstances, this barrier acts as a filter between your brain and the rest of your circulatory system. It lets in the nutrients and small molecules that the brain needs to function, while keeping out toxins and pathogens and keeping the brain’s internal environment tightly regulated.

    If bradykinin storms cause the blood-brain barrier to break down, this could allow harmful cells and compounds into the brain, leading to inflammation, potential brain damage, and many of the neurological symptoms Covid-19 patients experience. Jacobson told me, “It is a reasonable hypothesis that many of the neurological symptoms in Covid-19 could be due to an excess of bradykinin. It has been reported that bradykinin would indeed be likely to increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. In addition, similar neurological symptoms have been observed in other diseases that result from an excess of bradykinin.”

    Increased bradykinin levels could also account for other common Covid-19 symptoms. ACE inhibitors — a class of drugs used to treat high blood pressure — have a similar effect on the RAS system as Covid-19, increasing bradykinin levels. In fact, Jacobson and his team note in their paper that “the virus… acts pharmacologically as an ACE inhibitor” — almost directly mirroring the actions of these drugs.

    By acting like a natural ACE inhibitor, Covid-19 may be causing the same effects that hypertensive patients sometimes get when they take blood pressure–lowering drugs. ACE inhibitors are known to cause a dry cough and fatigue, two textbook symptoms of Covid-19. And they can potentially increase blood potassium levels, which has also been observed in Covid-19 patients. The similarities between ACE inhibitor side effects and Covid-19 symptoms strengthen the bradykinin hypothesis, the researchers say.

    ACE inhibitors are also known to cause a loss of taste and smell. Jacobson stresses, though, that this symptom is more likely due to the virus “affecting the cells surrounding olfactory nerve cells” than the direct effects of bradykinin.

    Though still an emerging theory, the bradykinin hypothesis explains several other of Covid-19’s seemingly bizarre symptoms. Jacobson and his team speculate that leaky vasculature caused by bradykinin storms could be responsible for “Covid toes,” a condition involving swollen, bruised toes that some Covid-19 patients experience. Bradykinin can also mess with the thyroid gland, which could produce the thyroid symptoms recently observed in some patients.

    The bradykinin hypothesis could also explain some of the broader demographic patterns of the disease’s spread. The researchers note that some aspects of the RAS system are sex-linked, with proteins for several receptors (such as one called TMSB4X) located on the X chromosome. This means that “women… would have twice the levels of this protein than men,” a result borne out by the researchers’ data. In their paper, Jacobson’s team concludes that this “could explain the lower incidence of Covid-19 induced mortality in women.” A genetic quirk of the RAS could be giving women extra protection against the disease.

    The bradykinin hypothesis provides a model that “contributes to a better understanding of Covid-19” and “adds novelty to the existing literature,” according to scientists Frank van de Veerdonk, Jos WM van der Meer, and Roger Little, who peer-reviewed the team’s paper. It predicts nearly all the disease’s symptoms, even ones (like bruises on the toes) that at first appear random, and further suggests new treatments for the disease.

    As Jacobson and team point out, several drugs target aspects of the RAS and are already FDA approved to treat other conditions. They could arguably be applied to treating Covid-19 as well. Several, like danazol, stanozolol, and ecallantide, reduce bradykinin production and could potentially stop a deadly bradykinin storm. Others, like icatibant, reduce bradykinin signaling and could blunt its effects once it’s already in the body.

    Interestingly, Jacobson’s team also suggests vitamin D as a potentially useful Covid-19 drug. The vitamin is involved in the RAS system and could prove helpful by reducing levels of another compound, known as REN. Again, this could stop potentially deadly bradykinin storms from forming. The researchers note that vitamin D has already been shown to help those with Covid-19. The vitamin is readily available over the counter, and around 20% of the population is deficient. If indeed the vitamin proves effective at reducing the severity of bradykinin storms, it could be an easy, relatively safe way to reduce the severity of the virus.

    Other compounds could treat symptoms associated with bradykinin storms. Hymecromone, for example, could reduce hyaluronic acid levels, potentially stopping deadly hydrogels from forming in the lungs. And timbetasin could mimic the mechanism that the researchers believe protects women from more severe Covid-19 infections. All of these potential treatments are speculative, of course, and would need to be studied in a rigorous, controlled environment before their effectiveness could be determined and they could be used more broadly.

    Covid-19 stands out for both the scale of its global impact and the apparent randomness of its many symptoms. Physicians have struggled to understand the disease and come up with a unified theory for how it works. Though as of yet unproven, the bradykinin hypothesis provides such a theory. And like all good hypotheses, it also provides specific, testable predictions — in this case, actual drugs that could provide relief to real patients.

    The researchers are quick to point out that “the testing of any of these pharmaceutical interventions should be done in well-designed clinical trials.” As to the next step in the process, Jacobson is clear: “We have to get this message out.” His team’s finding won’t cure Covid-19. But if the treatments it points to pan out in the clinic, interventions guided by the bradykinin hypothesis could greatly reduce patients’ suffering — and potentially save lives.


    Source: Elemental


    Note: You were one of the people who thanked that post, so I presume that you must have read it.





    Date: 15.10.2020
    Thread: Coronavirus with an R0 of 3 or beyond


    Source: Yahoo News


    Blood type may affect severity of COVID-19 infection, new study suggests




    In a new study published Wednesday, researchers in Canada found that, among 95 critically ill COVID-19 patients, 84 percent of those with the blood types A and AB required mechanical ventilation compared to 61 percent of patients with type O or type B, CNN reports. The former group also remained in the intensive care unit for a median of 13.5 days, while the latter's median stay was nine days.

    Dr. Mypinder Sekhon, an intensive care physician at Vancouver General Hospital and the author of the study, said blood type has been "at the back of my mind" when treating patients, but "we need repeated findings across many jurisdictions that show the same thing" before anything definitive is established.

    It's still unclear what may be behind the possible distinction; Sekhon said one explanation could be that people with blood type O are less prone to blood clotting, which can often lead to more severe cases.

    Either way, Sekhon doesn't believe blood type will supersede other "risk factors of severity" like age or comorbidities, and he said people should not behave differently based on their group. "If one is blood group A, you don't need to start panicking," he said. "And if you're blood group O, you're not free to go to the pubs and bars."

    Read more at CNN.


    Source: Yahoo News





    Below is the CNN article referenced in the article above.


    Source: CNN


    People with blood type O may have lower risk of Covid-19 infection and severe illness, two new studies suggest


    (CNN) — People with blood type O may be less vulnerable to Covid-19 and have a reduced likelihood of getting severely ill, according to two studies published Wednesday. Experts say more research is needed.

    The research provides further evidence that blood type (also known as blood group) may play a role in a person's susceptibility to infection and their chance of having a severe bout of the disease. The reasons for this link aren't clear and more research is needed to say what implications, if any, it has for patients.


    Studies add to growing evidence

    A Danish study found that among 7,422 people who tested positive for Covid-19, only 38.4% were blood type O -- even though, among a group of 2.2 million people who were not tested, that blood type made up 41.7% of the population.

    By contrast, 44.4% of group A tested positive, while in the wider Danish population that blood type makes up 42.4%.

    In the other study, researchers in Canada found that among 95 patients critically ill with Covid-19, a higher proportion with blood type A or AB -- 84% -- required mechanical ventilation compared with patients with blood group O or B, which was 61%.

    The Canadian study also found those with blood type A or AB had a longer stay in the intensive care unit, a median of 13.5 days, compared with those with blood group O or B, who had a median of nine days.

    "As a clinician ... it is at the back of my mind when I look at patients and stratify them. But in terms of a definitive marker we need repeated findings across many jurisdictions that show the same thing," said Dr. Mypinder Sekhon, an intensive care physician at Vancouver General Hospital and an author of the Canadian study.

    "I don't think this supersedes other risk factors of severity like age and co-morbities and so forth," added Sekhon, who is also a clinical assistant professor in the Division of Critical Care Medicine and Department of Medicine at the University of British Columbia.

    "If one is blood group A, you don't need to start panicking. And if you're blood group O, you're not free to go to the pubs and bars."


    No need to worry

    Most humans fall into one of four blood groups: A, B, AB or O. In the United States, the most common blood groups are O and A.

    It makes very little difference to most people's daily lives unless you have to have a blood transfusion. Nor should people worry unduly about the link between blood type and Covid-19, said Dr. Torben Barington, the senior author of the Danish paper and a clinical professor at Odense University Hospital and the University of Southern Denmark.

    "We do not know whether this is some kind of protection of group O, or whether it's some kind of vulnerability in the other blood groups," he said.

    "I think this has scientific interest, and when we find out what the mechanism is, perhaps we're able to use that proactively in some way in regard to treatment."

    n the Danish study, researchers analyzed data on Danish individuals who were tested between February 27 and July 30, and the distribution of blood types among those people was compared with data from people who had not been tested. They found that blood group wasn't a risk factor for hospitalization or death from Covid-19.

    Both studies were published in the journal Blood Advances.

    While there are several theories, researchers don't yet know what mechanism could explain the link between different blood groups and Covid-19.

    Sekhon said it could be explained by people with blood type O having less of a key clotting factor making them less prone to coagulation problems in the blood. Clotting has been a major driver of the severity of Covid-19.

    Other possible explanations involve blood group antigens and how they affect the production of infection fighting antibodies. Or it could be linked to genes associated with blood types and their effect on receptors in the immune system.

    "It's a repeated, interesting scientific observation that really warrants further mechanistic work," he said.


    'Important research question'

    The findings of the two new studies provide "more converging evidence that blood type may play a role in a person's susceptibility to Covid infection and their chance of having a severe bout of Covid-19," said Dr. Amesh Adalja, senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Health Security in Baltimore, who was not involved in either of the studies.

    A separate study, published in The New England Journal of Medicine in June, found genetic data in some Covid-19 patients and healthy people suggesting that those with Type A blood had a higher risk of becoming infected, and those with type O blood were at a lower risk.

    That previous genetic study, paired with the two new studies in Blood Advances, are "suggestive that this is a real phenomenon that we're seeing," said Adalja, whose work is focused on emerging infectious disease.

    "While we're not quite to the point where this is ironclad, it's clearly suggestive, and we have not seen anything inconsistent with this. The same pattern has been emerging with O blood type tending to be the one that's standing out," Adalja said.

    Adalja said that blood types and their susceptibility to various infections have been studied in the medical literature before. For instance, research suggests that people with blood type O appear to be more susceptible to norovirus infection.

    As for the novel coronavirus that causes Covid-19, "We need to figure out the mechanism and understand it at the molecular level to be able to say for sure how this is occurring -- that this is really the O blood type and not something that kind of tracks with O blood type," Adalja said.

    We're starting to see enough now that I think it's an important research question to answer," he said. "There's more science to be done here, but it seems to me that there's more evidence accumulating for this hypothesis."


    Source: CNN


    The two studies were published in the journal Blood Advances.





    Date: 25.10.2020
    Thread: Coronavirus with an R0 of 3 or beyond


    Source: University of Helsinki




    An artistic representation of how the coronavirus protein 'spike' (in red) could bind to the cellular receptor ACE2 (dark green) and to the newly identified receptor Neuropilin-1 (light blue) on the surface of cells (yellow).



    Open Sesame! Researchers discovered the second ‘key’ used by the SARS-CoV-2 virus to enter human cells



    To efficiently infect human cells, SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is able to use a receptor called Neuropilin-1, which is very abundant in many human tissues including the respiratory tract, blood vessels and neurons. The breakthrough discovery was made by a German-Finnish team of researchers led by neuroscientists Mika Simons, Technical University of Munich, Germany and virologist Giuseppe Balistreri, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.

    Why is the new coronavirus so infectious?

    “That SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor ACE2 to infect our cells was known, but viruses often use multiple factors to maximize their infectious potential” says Dr. Giuseppe Balistreri, head of the research group Viral Cell Biology at the Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki involved in the study. “Unlike the main receptor ACE2, which is present in low levels, Neuropilin-1 is very abundant in the cells of the nasal cavity. This is a strategically important localization possibly contributing to the efficient infectivity of this new coronavirus, which has caused a major pandemic, spreading rapidly around the world”, Balistreri explains.

    SARS-CoV-2 infects also the upper respiratory system including the nasal mucosa and consequently spreads rapidly. “This virus is able to leave our body even when we simply breath or talk”, Balistreri adds. “The starting point of our study was the question why SARS-CoV, a coronavirus that led to a much smaller outbreak in 2003, and SARS-CoV-2, spread in such a different way even if they use the same main receptor ACE2”, explains Ravi Ojha, a young researcher in the Balistreri’s team, and one of the main contributors of the study.


    A mysterious extra key on the virus surface

    To understand how these differences can be explained, in collaboration with the team of Professor Olli Vapalahti, University of Helsinki, the researchers took a look at the viral surface proteins, the spikes, that, like hooks, anchor the virus to the cells. Balistreri reveals that “when the sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome became available, at the end of January, something surprised us. Compared to its older relative, the new coronavirus had acquired an ‘extra piece’ on its surface proteins, which is also found in the spikes of many devastating human viruses, including Ebola, HIV, and highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza, among others. We thought this could lead us to the answer. But how?”

    The turning point of the research was when Ari Helenius, Professor emeritus at the ETH Institute in Zurich, Switzerland, and a former mentor of Balistreri, discussed the matter with two colleagues, Estonian cancer biologists Professor Tambet Teesalu ,University of Tartu, Estonia and Professor Erkki Ruoslahti, University of California, the USA. Professor Teesalu knew that the same sequence acquired by the new coronavirus is also present in certain cellular proteins and hormones that use Neuropilin receptors. Already in 2009, Dr Teesalu and co-workers had suggested that “perhaps, similar to our hormones, viruses that have this key can use neuropilin receptors to gain access into human tissues”.

    Together, the team of scientists looked at whether neuropilins were important for infection by SARS-CoV-2. The experiments performed by Simons, Teesalu and Balistreri teams, together with colleagues from the University of Queensland, Australia, and other research institutions now¨´support this hypothesis. Interestingly, an independent team of scientists at the University of Bristol , UK, has obtained similar results and confirmed that the virus spike binds directly to neuropilin-1 (Ref. DOI: 10.1126/science.abd3072).


    New antiviral strategy in making

    By specifically blocking neuropilin-1 with antibodies, the researchers were able to significantly reduce infection in laboratory cell cultures. “If you think of ACE2 as a door lock to enter the cell, then neuropilin-1 could be a factor that directs the virus to the door. ACE2 is expressed at very low levels in most cells. Thus, it is not easy for the virus to find doors to enter. Other factors such as neuropilin-1 might help the virus finding its door”, says Balistreri.

    Since disorders in smelling are among the symptoms of COVID-19 and neuropilin-1 are known to be localized in the cell layer of the nasal cavity, the scientists examined tissue samples from deceased COVID-19 patients. “We wanted to find out whether cells equipped with neuropilin-1 are really infected by SARS-CoV-2, and found that this was the case, says Mika Simons, Professor of molecular neurobiology at the Technical University of Munich and co-leader of the study.

    Additional studies in mice suggested that neuropilin-1 enables transport from the nasal mucosa to the central nervous system. The animals were administered tiny, virus-sized particles via the nose. These nanoparticles were chemically engineered to link to neuropilin-1. It turned out that after few hours the nanoparticles reached neurons and capillary vessels of the brain, whereas control particles without affinity for neuropilin-1 did not. “We could determine that neuropilin-1, at least under the conditions of our experiments, promotes transport into the brain, but we cannot make any conclusion whether this is also true for SARS-CoV-2. It is very likely that this pathway is suppressed by the immune system in most patients”, Simons says.

    Balistreri cautiously concludes “it is currently too early to speculate whether blocking directly neuropilin could be a viable therapeutic approach, as this could lead to side effects. This will have to be looked at in future studies. Currently our laboratory is testing the effect of new molecules that we have specifically designed to interrupt the connection between the virus and neuropilin. Preliminary results are very promising and we hope to obtain validations in vivo in the near future.”


    Original publication

    Neuropilin-1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and infectivity, Ludovico Cantuti-Castelvetri et al., Science (2020), DOI: 10.1126/science.abd2985


    Source: University of Helsinki


    Happy now? And by the way, all of those words in yellow are actual links that you can click.
    = DEATH BEFORE DISHONOR =

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  13. #24
    Senior Member Aianawa's Avatar
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    Very poor that that is all you two can come up with, helpful in that members carrying the cv19 card may now start researching for them selves, your post DT is a huge surprise. Aragorn do you know the meaning of suggest, maybe, probable, likely, is said, might, theory, must n surely ?. Just home and will gladly reply asap, mmm that it so easy to reply positively shows imo how the narrative is losing fast for the putrid ones, really we are all simply in a different boat than them as such, what happened to Cuomo ?.

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    Senior Member Aianawa's Avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Dreamtimer View Post
    There has been more than enough scientific evidence out already to disprove the idea that Covid-19 is a hoax. If what has already been presented here and all over the globe isn't enough, then nothing will be.

    You can't prove to a Fundamentalist that the world is as old as it is no matter the quality or quantity of scientific information provided.

    Your 'scientific' challenge, Aianawa, is an empty one at this point.
    You have totally missed the points, 1 = a sample as proof, real simple.

    2 = Your living 1984, cv19 will pass and another fear program will take it's place.

    3 = Mind slavery is tough to know till cracks appear, am pointing out many cracks.

    4 = I so wish i was incorrect, completley incorrect.

    5 = Are you watching your news atm, how does it feel, how amazing is Biden n co ?.

  15. #26
    Super Moderator United States Dreamtimer's Avatar
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    What's new here other than absolutely nothing?

    Ghengis Khan had a program of fear.

    Putin has a program of fear.

    Trump had a program of fear.

    You have a program of fear.

    So what?

    You try so hard to bring us into your fear. Why?

    It's not enlightenment. Running around, name-calling, dropping pedo accusations ad hoc. What do you think you're doing other than exactly what David Icke talks about?

    You're doing the whole problem, reaction, solution thing. Do you not see it?



    I have more freedom than ever at this point in life. Granted, Trump and his lackeys nearly screwed the pooch with that one, but they failed. Thank God, Goddess, Sophia, and Sasquatch!


    I'm not going to live in your fear where everything is a hoax and a lie.

    It's clearly no good. Not for me, anyway.



    Feel free to live your life as you see fit. Please stop demanding that others do the same.

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    Super Moderator Norway Elen's Avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Dreamtimer View Post
    What's new here other than absolutely nothing?

    Ghengis Khan had a program of fear.

    Putin has a program of fear.

    Trump had a program of fear.

    You have a program of fear.

    So what?

    You try so hard to bring us into your fear. Why?

    It's not enlightenment. Running around, name-calling, dropping pedo accusations ad hoc. What do you think you're doing other than exactly what David Icke talks about?

    You're doing the whole problem, reaction, solution thing. Do you not see it?



    I have more freedom than ever at this point in life. Granted, Trump and his lackeys nearly screwed the pooch with that one, but they failed. Thank God, Goddess, Sophia, and Sasquatch!


    I'm not going to live in your fear where everything is a hoax and a lie.

    It's clearly no good. Not for me, anyway.



    Feel free to live your life as you see fit. Please stop demanding that others do the same.
    Right on Dreamtimer. I have been in that fear-based state as well, then I dragged myself out of it and promised myself never to listen to those kind of things again...it's no better than GOSSIP. Gossip is the lowest form of communication.
    Whatever is true. Whatever is noble. Whatever is right. Whatever is lovely. Whatever is admirable. Anything of excellence and worthy of praise. Dwell on these things. Jesus Christ (I agree)

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  19. #28
    Administrator Aragorn's Avatar
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    Quote Originally posted by Elen View Post
    Quote Originally posted by Dreamtimer View Post
    What's new here other than absolutely nothing?

    Ghengis Khan had a program of fear.

    Putin has a program of fear.

    Trump had a program of fear.

    You have a program of fear.

    So what?

    You try so hard to bring us into your fear. Why?

    It's not enlightenment. Running around, name-calling, dropping pedo accusations ad hoc. What do you think you're doing other than exactly what David Icke talks about?

    You're doing the whole problem, reaction, solution thing. Do you not see it?



    I have more freedom than ever at this point in life. Granted, Trump and his lackeys nearly screwed the pooch with that one, but they failed. Thank God, Goddess, Sophia, and Sasquatch!


    I'm not going to live in your fear where everything is a hoax and a lie.

    It's clearly no good. Not for me, anyway.



    Feel free to live your life as you see fit. Please stop demanding that others do the same.
    Right on Dreamtimer. I have been in that fear-based state as well, then I dragged myself out of it and promised myself never to listen to those kind of things again...it's no better than GOSSIP. Gossip is the lowest form of communication.
    I think we've all been in that state to some degree, Sister, when we were first confronted with all the conspiracy theories, the talking heads and the "witnesses". But then you wake up from being "woke".
    = DEATH BEFORE DISHONOR =

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  21. #29
    Senior Member Hungary
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    Quote Originally posted by Aragorn View Post
    I think we've all been in that state to some degree, Sister, when we were first confronted with all the conspiracy theories, the talking heads and the "witnesses". But then you wake up from being "woke".
    Oh no, the Lizard people got you too!!!




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  23. #30
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    To most people this disease is a deadly reality. To others it's an entertainment. Sad, isn't it? And they all talk and walk in lockstep---such independent thinkers! LOL.

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