Results 1 to 5 of 5

Thread: 4,000-Year-Old Mummies Are Half-Brothers

  1. #1
    Senior Member United States skywizard's Avatar
    Join Date
    13th September 2013
    Location
    Dixieland - USA
    Posts
    1,023
    Thanks
    640
    Thanked 6,882 Times in 1,020 Posts

    4,000-Year-Old Mummies Are Half-Brothers


    The mummies of Khnum-Nakht (left) and Nakht-Ankh (right) date to about 1800 B.C.
    The DNA extracted from Khnum-Nakht, who died first, was in bad condition.



    Two Egyptian mummies that rested next to each other for nearly 4,000 years are not full brothers, but rather half brothers, finds a new study that used advanced DNA sequencing.

    The finding settles a 111-year-old mystery that began when excavators exhumed the two mummies in Deir Rifeh, a village 250 miles (400 kilometers) south of Cairo, in 1907. Both mummies — thought to be of noble lineage, based on their luxurious grave goods and the elite placement of their tomb — had the female name "Khnum-Aa" written on their coffins.

    Khnum-Aa was referred to as the mother of both men, but studies in subsequent years couldn't confirm it. Now, by analyzing DNA extracted from the mummies' teeth, researchers have verified that these two ancient Egyptians had the same mother but different fathers.

    "This is an extremely rare, perhaps unique, case where we have been able to test an ancient claim of a maternal relationship made in hieroglyphic texts, alongside the bodies of the individuals concerned," study co-researcher Campbell Price, a curator of Egypt and Sudan at the University of Manchester's Manchester Museum in England, told Live Science.

    Blood brothers?

    The two mummies — named Nakht-Ankh and Khnum-Nakht — lived during the 12th dynasty, which lasted from 1985 B.C. to 1773 B.C. Although Nakht-Ankh was older by at least 20 years, Khnum-Nakht died first, when he was roughly 40 years old, about six months before his brother, according to dates written on their bandages.

    Further analyses revealed that the fathers of the men weren't named in the inscriptions but rather were referred to as a local ruler. With little else to go on, researchers tried a variety of techniques to determine whether the mummies were, in fact, brothers.


    Margaret Murray and her colleagues unwrap the mummy of Nakht-Ankh, which was
    sent from Egypt to Manchester in 1908.



    For instance, Margaret Murray and her colleagues, who studied the mummies when they were brought to the University of Manchester in 1908, concluded that the two were not related after studying the anatomy of the mummies' skulls and bodies. In the 1970s, an examination of the mummies' skin pigmentation led researchers to the same conclusion.

    "Previous analyses have been inconclusive or contradictory," Price said. "Only now has technology developed far enough to allow this type of study."

    DNA analysis

    To get to the bottom of the mystery, researchers extracted DNA from two molars from each mummy. However, the DNA quality in Khnum-Nakht was so poor, the researchers had to extract a third molar from him. (Khnum-Nakht likely died unexpectedly, as his mummy was not eviscerated — that is, the organs had not been removed — and the mummy was in worse condition than Nakht-Ankh, the researchers said.)

    Then, the researchers analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (genetic material passed down from the mother) and Y chromosomal DNA (genetic material passed down from the father).

    "The two mummies had identical mitochondrial profiles, [so] we can be sure they were related maternally," the study's lead researcher, Konstantina Drosou, a research associate at the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, in the United Kingdom, told Live Science. "For the Y chromosome, the results were less complete due to the fact that the Y chromosome exists in only one copy per cell, whereas the mitochondrial DNA exists in multiple copies per cell."

    Even so, the Y chromosome results indicated that the two men likely had different fathers.





    Source: https://www.livescience.com/61448-mu...-brothers.html



    peace...
    ~~ One foot in the Ancient World and the other in the Now ~~
    ~~ 'cuse me while I kiss the sky... Jimi Hendrix ~~
    ~~ Never stop looking for what's not there ~~
    ~~ Our past is just a story we tell ourselves ~~

  2. The Following 8 Users Say Thank You to skywizard For This Useful Post:

    Aianawa (25th May 2018), Aragorn (25th May 2018), Dreamtimer (25th May 2018), Elen (25th May 2018), enjoy being (25th May 2018), Juniper (26th May 2018), Kathy (25th May 2018), NotAPretender (25th May 2018)

  3. #2
    Senior Member Aianawa's Avatar
    Join Date
    18th March 2015
    Posts
    6,335
    Thanks
    29,697
    Thanked 26,132 Times in 6,004 Posts
    Ones dark, ones white.

  4. The Following 8 Users Say Thank You to Aianawa For This Useful Post:

    Aragorn (25th May 2018), Dreamtimer (25th May 2018), Elen (25th May 2018), enjoy being (25th May 2018), Juniper (26th May 2018), modwiz (25th May 2018), NotAPretender (25th May 2018), skywizard (25th May 2018)

  5. #3
    Senior Member United States skywizard's Avatar
    Join Date
    13th September 2013
    Location
    Dixieland - USA
    Posts
    1,023
    Thanks
    640
    Thanked 6,882 Times in 1,020 Posts
    Quote Originally posted by Aianawa View Post
    Ones dark, ones white.
    Noticed that too Aianawa
    ~~ One foot in the Ancient World and the other in the Now ~~
    ~~ 'cuse me while I kiss the sky... Jimi Hendrix ~~
    ~~ Never stop looking for what's not there ~~
    ~~ Our past is just a story we tell ourselves ~~

  6. The Following 7 Users Say Thank You to skywizard For This Useful Post:

    Aianawa (26th May 2018), Aragorn (26th May 2018), Elen (26th May 2018), enjoy being (25th May 2018), Juniper (26th May 2018), modwiz (26th May 2018), NotAPretender (25th May 2018)

  7. #4
    Senior Member Aianawa's Avatar
    Join Date
    18th March 2015
    Posts
    6,335
    Thanks
    29,697
    Thanked 26,132 Times in 6,004 Posts
    Woman likely the decision makers then ?

  8. The Following 4 Users Say Thank You to Aianawa For This Useful Post:

    Aragorn (27th May 2018), Elen (27th May 2018), modwiz (26th May 2018), NotAPretender (27th May 2018)

  9. #5
    Senior Member NotAPretender's Avatar
    Join Date
    3rd April 2017
    Posts
    3,972
    Thanks
    15,472
    Thanked 17,577 Times in 3,969 Posts
    Quote Originally posted by Aianawa View Post
    Woman likely the decision makers then ?
    Interesting thought, Mr. Aianawa...I don't know how relevant long time ago is to today but one social scientist suggested that "Men do not choose their mates, they just lay in wait until a mate chooses them."

    I always thought there was a lot of truth in that...generally speaking, in any case. Mostly related to 'functional' relationships...
    "We are one thought away from changing the world!"

  10. The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to NotAPretender For This Useful Post:

    Aianawa (27th May 2018), Aragorn (27th May 2018), Elen (28th May 2018)

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •