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skywizard
22nd March 2018, 22:35
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A mummified specimen from Chile's Atacama region fueled speculation for
a decade about its peculiar skull.


A tiny, pointy-headed skeleton that fits in the palm of a hand isn't an alien, despite conspiracy theories that have circulated for years.

The skeleton, with a dramatically elongated skull and an underdeveloped jaw and face, was uncovered in Chile's Atacama Desert in 2003, and mystified scientists when it was first found.

Research published in 2013 offered some clues about the skeleton's bizarre appearance, but five additional years of genetic analysis have provided even more answers. Examination of the skeleton's entire genome revealed that it was Chilean and female, and that its misshapen skull and other deformities might be linked to a host of genetic mutations that affect bone development. Together, those mutations shaped an array of abnormalities that gave the remains an alien-like form.

Though the skeleton is the size of a 22-week-old fetus, it was initially thought to be a 6- to 8-year-old child with severe deformities. Nearly a decade later, a highly detailed analysis — including X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans and DNA sequencing — showed that it was a fetus (and that it was definitely human).

It's hard to tell how old the skeleton is just by looking at it, but prior examinations found it to be about 40 years old, scientists explained in a new study. Despite the skeleton's minuscule size, previous analysis cast doubt on whether it was a fetus because its "advanced bone age" more closely resembled that of a young child, particularly in the structure of the skeleton's skull, with sutures that were already fused.

But that feature was a byproduct of a genetic mutation — one of many that caused its numerous skeletal deformities. And, in fact, the premature fusing of skull plates in the fetus is what gave the skull its pointed shape, the researchers reported.

The scientists extracted DNA from one of the skeleton's ribs — another anomaly that previously had fueled speculation about alien origins, as there were 10 pairs, rather than the 12 normally found in humans.

However, alien hunters will likely be disappointed to hear that "the specimen is shown here to have a purely earthly origin," the study authors reported.


Genetic anomalies, not extraterrestrial DNA
While the scientists found no evidence of alien DNA, they did find mutations in seven of the fetus's genes: COL1A1, COL2A1, KMT2D, FLNB, ATR, TRIP11 and PCNT. Mutations in these genes are known to play roles in premature joint fusion, abnormalities in rib development, malformed skulls, and diseases that inhibit the development of bone and cartilage, according to the study.

Taken together, the mutations expressed by these genes would explain all of the fetus's skeletal abnormalities, the scientists concluded. However, finding so many mutations that specifically affect skeletal development is unusual; in fact, it's never been reported before, and it is unknown what triggered this cascade of mutations, study lead author Garry Nolan, a professor of microbiology and immunology at Stanford University.

As bizarre as this skeleton may appear, it isn't the first example of remains that look mostly human but nevertheless invite comparisons to popular images of creatures from science fiction.

In 1999, excavations in a 1,000-year-old cemetery in Mexico yielded 13 human skeletons — many of them children — with skulls that were stretched and pointed in the back, bearing a distinctly alien appearance. But researchers determined that the skulls' unusual shapes stemmed from cultural practices that deliberately deformed the bone, similar to those seen in pre-Hispanic cultures in Central America.

And 14 elongated, alien-like skulls in Bavarian graves dating to 1,500 years ago also were traced to cultural practices of cranial shaping, this time in tribes from southeastern Europe, Live Science previously reported.

However, five so-called "alien mummies" from Peru — mummified humanoids with three-fingered hands — were widely denounced by experts as fabrications, perhaps even cobbled together from looted body parts belonging to real human remains. [In Photos: 'Alien' Skulls Reveal Odd, Ancient Tradition]


Genes working together
The bigger story is not about the skeleton's debunked "alien" origins but what its analysis reveals about how genes shape our skeletons as they develop and grow, and how they interact with each other to do so — successfully or not, Nolan told Live Science in an email.

"The era of single gene/single disease is just about over — it's now time to look at the more subtle effects when genes interact," Nolan wrote. "In isolation, a gene might have no effect ... but combined with other genes, the outcomes can be dramatic."

The idea of gene collaboration is not new to geneticists; it has been well studied for years in models derived from fruit flies, plants and yeasts, Nolan said. But now, researchers are compiling enough data to understand these genetic interactions in humans, and are exploring how they affect our biology.

"These studies show that certain gene mutations can 'vote' towards a given body plan or disease," Nolan said.

And the new study's findings about genetic control of bone development could help researchers reverse-engineer solutions to disorders that affect how bones grow, Nolan told Live Science in an email.

"Deeper knowledge about bone growth disorders will point to how normal growth must develop," he said. "It might offer understandings of how we can (say, with drugs) stimulate bone growth in cases of catastrophic accidents to help patients."




Source: https://www.livescience.com/62097-tiny-skeleton-not-alien.html


http://www.picgifs.com/graphics/p/peace/graphics-peace-740037.gifpeace...

Dumpster Diver
23rd March 2018, 00:33
All this makes sense since Steven Greer is a deep operative.

Gale Frierson
23rd March 2018, 10:52
Say WHAT?

Dumpster Diver
23rd March 2018, 14:12
Say WHAT?

Andy Basiago rolled the card over on him in an revealing interview a few months ago. Greer is running a psyop.

Aragorn
23rd March 2018, 23:09
All this makes sense since Steven Greer is a deep operative.

Say WHAT?

Andy Basiago rolled the card over on him in an revealing interview a few months ago. Greer is running a psyop.

I wouldn't place too much value on Andrew Basiago's claims. ;) But that said, Greer has indeed been co-opted — through extortion — and as such, he is not to be trusted anymore on whatever information he provides. Besides, we know from Disclosure Project witness Barry King — who has been a member here, and whom we ourselves have done an interview with (https://jandeane81.com/showthread.php/8639-The-One-Truth-interviews-Barry-King-Disclosure-Project-Witness) — that Greer takes other people's testimonies and research and then makes it look like it all came from him.

Steven Greer was a reputed trauma surgeon when he started the Disclosure Project — he has since then quit his job as a surgeon — and he is a married man with four children, but he was living in the closet, because he's a narcissist and he's actually gay. Rumor has it that he's also a drug addict. He was set up in his hotel room with a hidden camera while he was "entertaining another gentleman" — it was the same hotel room as where he had done an interview earlier that day — and ever since then he's been on the alphabet soup spooks' payroll. Or perhaps put more correctly: he's following orders now, whether he likes them or not.

For that matter, Bill Ryan, Kerry Cassidy, David Wilcock, Richard Dolan and Bob Dean are all fully aware of Greer's compromised situation, and the guy who set Greer up was most likely former Project Camelot whistleblower John "Jake Simpson" Burns, who works for the ASIO, the Australian counterpart of the British MI5.

We have a member here — she hasn't been around anymore in a long time — who is a former moderator of Project Avalon, and who was informed of Greer's compromised situation by Bill and Kerry during a dinner with them, Wilcock, Dolan, Dean and Burns at the time of the Project Camelot "Awake & Aware" conference in Barcelona. Kerry was sleeping with Burns at the time, and Burns was sitting next to said member in the audience during the conference. Said member has seen the footage of Greer having sex with a guy in his hotel room — it was Bill Ryan himself who showed it to her.

Furthermore, Project Avalon has several members who are gay, and back when I myself was still registered at Project Avalon, one of them started a thread with the question as to whether Greer was compromised, and he mentioned somewhere farther down the thread that he had come across Steven Greer's profile page at a gay contact website.

According to the female member who attended the conference in Barcelona and who sat next to Burns during the presentation, the keywords to search for — for those of you with insatiable curiosity, but I'm sure you will pardon me for not having looked into it myself :vom: — are allegedly "DC Muscle Wolf".

BeastOfBologna
24th March 2018, 02:25
Couldn't verify it...I don't know what to think...I have gradually lost my faith in him. It was breakfast club meeting or whatever the hell it was that renewed my interest in UFO phenomena...

Aianawa
30th March 2018, 22:42
Crikey, they are good at finding weaknesses.